As promised, here’s part 2 of my FBA discussion, in which we’ll talk about the interaction of ISA’s forms-based authentication (FBA) feature with Exchange 2010. (See part 1 here.)
Offloading FBA to ISA
As I discussed in part 1, ISA Server includes the option of performing FBA pre-authentication as part of the web listener. You aren’t stuck with FBA – you can use other pre-auth methods too. The thinking behind this is that ISA is the security server sitting in the DMZ, while the Exchange CAS is in the protected network. Why proxy an incoming connection from the Internet into the real world (even with ISA’s impressive HTTP reverse proxy and screening functionality) if it doesn’t present valid credentials? In this configuration, ISA is configured for FBA while the Exchange 2010/2007 CAS or Exchange 2003 front-end server are configured for Windows Integrated or Basic as shown in Figure 1 (a figure so nice I’ll re-use it):
Figure 1: Publishing Exchange using FBA on ISA
Moving FBA off of ISA
Having ISA (and Threat Management Gateway, the 64-bit successor to ISA 2006) perform pre-auth in this fashion is nice and works cleanly. However, in our Exchange 2010 deployment, we found a couple of problems with it:
The early beta releases of Entourage for EWS wouldn’t work with this configuration; Entourage could never connect. If our users connected to the 3Sharp VPN, bypassing the ISA publishing rules, Entourage would immediately see the Exchange 2010 servers and do its thing. I don’t know if the problem was solved for the final release.
We couldn’t get federated calendar sharing, a new Exchange 2010 feature, to work. Other Exchange 20120 organizations would get errors when trying to connect to our organization. This new calendar sharing feature uses a Windows Live-based central brokering service to avoid the need to provision and manage credentials.
Through some detailed troubleshooting with Microsoft and other Exchange 2010 organizations, we finally figured out that our ISA FBA configuration was causing the problem. The solution was to disable ISA pre-authentication and re-enable FBA on the appropriate virtual directories (OWA and ECP) on our CAS server. Once we did that, not only did federated calendar sharing start working flawlessly, but our Entourage users found their problems had gone away too. For more details of what we did, read on.
How Calendar Sharing Works in Exchange 2010
If you haven’t seen other descriptions of the federated calendar sharing, here’s a quick primer on how it works. This will help you understand why, if you’re using ISA pre-auth for your Exchange servers, you’ll want to rethink it.
In Exchange 2007, you could share calendar data with other Exchange 2007 organizations. Doing so meant that your CAS servers had to talk to their calendar servers, and the controls around it were not that granular. In order to do it, you either needed to establish a forest trust and grant permissions to the other forest’s CAS servers (to get detailed per-user free/busy information) or set up a separate user in your forest for the foreign forests to use (to get default per-org free/busy data). You also have to fiddle around with the Autodiscover service connection points and ensure that you’ve got pointers for the foreign Autodiscover SCPs in your own AD (and the foreign systems have yours). You also have to publish Autodiscover and EWS externally (which you have to do for Outlook Anywhere) and coordinate all your certificate CAs. While this doesn’t sound that bad, you have to do these steps for every single foreign organization you’re sharing with. That adds up, and it’s a poorly documented process – you’ll start at this TechNet topic about the Availability service and have to do a lot of chasing around to figure out how certificates fit in, how to troubleshoot it, and the SCP export and import process.
In Exchange 2010, this gets a lot easier; individual users can send sharing invitations to users in other Exchange 2010 organizations, and you can set up organization relationships with other Exchange 2010 organizations. Microsoft has broken up the process into three pieces:
- Establish your organization’s trust relationship with Windows Live. This is a one-time process that must take place before any sharing can take place – and you don’t have to create or manage any service or role accounts. You just have to make sure that you’re using a CA to publish Autodiscover/EWS that Windows Live will trust. (Sorry, there’s no list out there yet, but keep watching the docs on TechNet.) From your Exchange 2010 organization (typically through EMC, although you can do it from EMS) you’ll swap public keys (which are built into your certificates) with Windows Live and identify one or more accepted domains that you will allow to be federated. Needless to say, Autodiscover and EWS must be properly published to the Internet. You also have to add a single DNS record to your public DNS zone, showing that you do have authority over the domain namespace. If you have multiple domains and only specify some of them, beware: users that don’t have provisioned addresses in those specified domains won’t be able to share or receive federated calendar info!
- Establish one or more sharing policies. These policies control how much information your users will be able to share with external users through sharing invitations. The setting you pick here defines the maximum level of information that your users can share from their calendars: none, free/busy only, some details, or all details. You can create a single policy for all your users or use multiple policies to provision your users on a more granular basis. You can assign these policies on a per-user basis.
- Establish one or more sharing relationships with other organizations. When you want to view availability data of users in other Exchange 2010 organizations, you create an organization relationship with them. Again, you can do this via EMC or EMS. This tells your CAS servers to lookup information from the defined namespaces on behalf of your users – contingent, of course, that the foreign organization has established the appropriate permissions in their organization relationships. If the foreign namespace isn’t federated with Windows Live, then you won’t be allowed to establish the relationship.
You can read more about these steps in the TechNet documentation and at this TechNet topic (although since TechNet is still in beta, it’s not all in place yet). You should also know that these policies and settings combine with the ACLs on users calendar folders, and as is the typical case in Exchange when there are multiple levels of permission, the most restrictive level wins.
What’s magic about all of this is that, at no point along the way other than the initial first step, do you have to worry consciously about the certificates you’re using. You never have to provide or provision credentials. As you create your policies and sharing relationships with other organizations – and other organizations create them with yours – Windows Live is hovering silently in the background, acting as a trusted broker for the initial connections. When your Exchange 2010 organization interacts with another, your CAS servers receive a SAML token from Windows Live. This token is then passed to the foreign Exchange 2010 organization, which can validate it because of its own trust relationship with Windows Live. All this token does is validate that your servers are really coming from the claimed namespace – Windows Live plays no part in authorization, retrieving the data, or managing the sharing policies.
However, here’s the problem: when my CAS talks to your CAS, they’re using SAML tokens – not user accounts – to authenticate against IIS for EWS calls. ISA Server (and, IIRC, TMG) don’t know how to validate these tokens, so the incoming requests can’t authenticate and pass on to the CAS. The end result is that you can’t get a proper sharing relationship set up and you can’t federate calendar data.
What We Did To Fix It
Once we knew what the problem was, fixing it was easy:
- Modify the OWA and ECP virtual directors on all of our Exchange 2010 CAS servers to perform FBA. These are the only virtual directories that permit FBA, so they’re the only two you need to change:Set-OWAVirtualDirectory -Identity “CAS-SERVER\owa (Default Web Site)” -BasicAuthentication $TRUE -WindowsAuthentication $FALSE -FormsAuthentication $TRUESet-ECPVirtualDirectory -Identity “CAS-SERVER\ecp (Default Web Site)” -BasicAuthentication $TRUE -WindowsAuthentication $FALSE -FormsAuthentication $TRUE
- Modify the Web listener on our ISA server to disable pre-authentication. In our case, we were using a single Web listener for Exchange (and only for Exchange), so it was a simple matter of changing the authentication setting to a value of No Authentication.
- Modify each of the ISA publishing rules (ActiveSync, Outlook Anywhere, and OWA):On the Authentication tab, select the value No delegation, but client may authenticate directly.On the Users tab, remove the value All Authenticated Users and replace it with the value All Users. This is important! If you don’t do this, ISA won’t pass any connections on!
You may also need to take a look at the rest of your Exchange virtual directories and ensure that the authentication settings are valid; many places will allow Basic authentication between ISA and their CAS servers and require NTLM or Windows Integrated from external clients to ISA.
Calendar sharing and ISA FBA pre-authentication are both wonderful features, and I’m a bit sad that they don’t play well together. I hope that future updates to TMG will resolve this issue and allow TMG to successfully pre-authenticate incoming federated calendar requests.